The goal of the remediation stage is the selection, implementation and operation of actions to prevent exposures and achieve the regulatory limits or cleanup goals where practicable.
Geospatial methods can support and optimize remedy selection and evaluation of remedy effectiveness by:
- informing the CSM (remedy selection is based on the CSM)
- assessing the certainty in the required remedial footprint
- determining the contaminant mass (and its uncertainty) which may support selection, design, and cost estimating of a particular remedy
- determining the contaminant mass discharge or flux from discrete measurement points before and after treatment. Geospatial methods can provide a better indication of the uncertainty in the mass discharge estimates than other interpolation techniques (Li, Goovaerts, and Abriola 2007); see also the ITRC MASSFLUX-1 document.
- illustrating the spatial variation which may influence how remedial alternatives are applied
- providing input to various models intended to simulate and optimize remedial processes
- evaluating dynamics such as seasonal variation, geochemical changes, and groundwater flow regimes
- supporting determination of remedy effectiveness and monitoring effectiveness of remedial measures
- allowing forecasts of remedial duration for attenuation based on spatial and temporal trends
- supporting predictions of short and long-term remedial effectiveness
- developing visual description
- predicting concentrations that are consistent with simulations
- comparing the results with the bounds of anticipated uncertainty
Figure 4. Remediation overview.
Remediation: Plume Change/Attenuation Over Time
How are the plume intensity and boundaries changing over time?
Remediation: Trend Maps
If there are changes occurring in the plume, what is the spatial distribution of the temporal concentration trends across the site?
Remediation: Estimating Average Concentrations
What is an estimate of the average concentration of a contaminant for any medium?
Remediation: Evaluating Remedial Success
Has the remediation met remedial goals?
Remediation: Remedial Action Optimization
How can the ongoing remedial action be optimized?
Remediation: Future Data Prediction/Verification
Can geospatial methods support the prediction or verification of site conditions?